Here I present a chapter about the worship of the Great Sage from the ethnography Chinese Spirit-Medium Cults in Singapore (1955) by Alan J. A. Elliott. Aspects of the cult are similar to those mentioned in my previous article about the Wanfu Temple (Tainan, Taiwan), while others are different. For instance, body mortification appears to be a normal aspect of the Spirit Medium’s process. The chapter contains images of mediums with skewers through their cheeks, for example. Mortification in Wanfu is only on special occasions. For instance, here is a video where Wanfu’s spirit medium draws blood by lightly pummeling himself with spiked clubs. This took place during the “opening doors” ceremony when the temple was reopened after renovations were completed in 2014.
The pdf was put together quickly to aid a friend in need of research material. It is comprised of quick smartphone photos. I currently do not have access to a scanner.
This has been posted for educational purposes. No copyright infringement is intended.
Elliott, A. J. (1990). Chinese spirit-medium cults in Singapore. London: The Athlone Press. (Original work published 1955)